June 2016 Update: I stopped using most of the supplements below (minimalistic approach). Read my about page, here, and here to understand my arguments.
Original post (August 2015):
I think that no matter how much I try to optimize my nutrition, I still have to use a few supplements.
If you consider the nutrient depleted soils in which our foods grow (hence, the poor nutrient content of foods), the increased levels of toxicity we are exposed to, the stress, the lack of sleep, and many other factors, you may understand that the recommended daily doses for vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients are sub-appreciated.
I use some supplements because I currently consider that this strategy helps me improve my healthy lifespan. So, please don’t take this as general recommendation. We are all different, we live in different environments, and we’re exposed to different epigenetic modulators. So, a careful strategy should be individually crafted.
Some of the providers of my supplements are local companies (Romanian), while some are imported. I will try to link those from local companies with their approximate Amazon counterparts (in terms of concentrations, form, and bioavailability) for convenience.
Supplements should add on top of, and not replace, a well formulated diet. They are very important, but diet is the starting point.
Supplements – Stacks – What I’ve been Experimented with
Magnesium – 300 mg (organic, elemental) – 80% RDA twice a day (thus, 160% RDA)
Even though my diet includes substantial amounts of plant foods (several cups of brocolli, cabbage, and other greens and vegetables) every day, I still consider I have to supplement with Mg.
I think I was deficient in Mg most of my life. I started supplementing a few months ago, while I was consuming moderate amounts of vegetables and greens. Gradually, I increased supplementation to 160% RDA (2 capsules a day – 600 mg elemental Mg) and I also increased my intake of plant foods.
1 cup (~90g) of broccoli contains ~20mg of Mg, while 1 cup chopped cabbage (~90g) contains ~11 mg of Mg. 1 cup (~134g) of mixed nuts contains approximately 307 mg of Mg. Given my daily IF (intermittent fasting strategy) and my 2 meal/day regimen, I believe that my magnesium intake (diet + supplements) clocks near 300% RDA (~1,200 mg of Mg). For reference (R1 – 2015):
The United States Food and Nutrition Board recommends a daily intake of 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women (1). However, recent reports estimate that at least 60% of Americans do not consume the recommended daily amount of Mg (281). Part of the problem stems from the soil used for agriculture, which is becoming increasingly deficient in essential minerals. Over the last 60 years the Mg content in fruit and vegetables decreased by 20 –30% (570). Moreover, the Western diet contains more refined grains and processed food. Estimates are that 80 –90% of Mg is lost during food processing.
According to this recent paper [R1], magnesium is the second most abundant intra-cellular cation (after potassium) and it is involved in 600+ enzymatic reactions, so you may start considering it more seriously.
The one I have is from a Romanian company and is ~$6 for 60 capsules. Something similar to what I have is this. You may also consider Mg from NowFoods and/or NaturesWay.
If you have trouble with sleep, I’ve noticed that combining cold thermogenesis (ice baths/long cold showers) + reduced exposure to artificial light at night + 300 mg of Mg (1 hour prior to bed) may induce faster sleep onset and better sleep quality.
Pre and Probiotics
I didn’t start using them until recently. One of the reasons that made me do it was reading the latest research studies and books that underline the growing importance of a healthy gut. Plus, I’ve also taken two courses on the Gut Microbiome which added to my rationale.
At first I increased the intake of plant foods, a couple of months ago. Then, as I returned from a long trip to the U.S., I started using pre/probiotic combos along with foods to support the overgrowth of good bacteria.
It’s mostly unreasonable to take prebiotics and probiotics if you do not consume foods in conjunction with them. And yes, I consider to be pointless taking prebiotics for a couple of days while maintaining a diet very high in fat and very low in plant foods. It may serve to no purpose, but make you feel bloated, gassy and rambling about their uselessness.
As I started taking pre/probiotics, it took about two weeks until it stopped make me feel bloated and gassy. It may take some time (not too much – 2-3 weeks – until bacterial diversity reflects your dietary modifications). However, I’ve experienced positive effects ever since the beginning. One of them was the satiation pangs (the opposite of hunger pangs) that I felt a couple of hours post meal.
Even though I increased the intake of plant foods (brocolli, cabbage, resistant starch, and many other vegetables and legumes) my current strategy still keeps me in ketosis. I usually combine these plants with full fat fermented Greek yoghurt (containing some bacterial strains), bacon, and sometimes maturated cheese.
I take the pre/probiotic combo 30-45 minutes before meals. Here are some of the ones that I’m using:
Jarro-Dophilus + FOS – this has to be kept refrigerated (3.4 billion viable cells – containing 6 bacterial strains, inulin, and fructo-oligo-saccharides)
Jarro-Dophilus EPS – this is temperature stable and does not have to be kept in the fridge
(5 billion viable cells – with 8 probiotic strains)
There are dozens of other products, some of them containing many more bacterial strains and many more viable cells. But remember, for improved efficiency: take them for at least 2-3 weeks and make sure you include more plant foods and fermented foods in your diet.
DHA/EPA (Cod Liver Oil and Fish Oil)
The essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, DHA and EPA, are critical to brain health (given that ~60% of brain’s dry matter is fat). I don’t think I have to provide the arguments for their consumption, either by loading your diet with fish and sea food or by supplementing from a good non-toxic (or least toxic source). I think I was severely deprived of these nutrients until I was 24 (2 years ago), when I started supplementing. If I could only knew…
Anyway, I use cod liver oil which provides both of these PUFAs. The oil also contains the vitamins A and D3 for better absorption. I use the cod liver oil as part of my protocol for maintaining higher testosterone levels.
While the cod liver oil I use is not very high in EPA and DHA, I also use another type of fish oil which provides 540-to-720 mg EPA and 360-to-480 mg DHA per day. I get this amount of EPA and DHA from 3,000 mg (3g) of fish oil.
A conventional 1,000 mg fish oil gelatin capsule may provide ~18% EPA (180 mg) and 12% DHA (120 mg). You could use 2-3 capsules/day. Fish oil is quite inexpensive (even the ones from good sources and low polluted waters), while cod liver oil may be more expensive.
This is fairly similar to the cod liver oil I use, while this one is similar to the other fish oil I use.
B Vitamins Complex
I overdose on B vitamins. They are water soluble and the overdose I use is way below the toxicity threshold (some of them don’t have a toxicity threshold). Bs are extremely important in methylation processes, they are crucial for brain health, as well as sound cell metabolism. They are involved in way too many process, many more than I could briefly mention here. But if you’re really interested, Wikipedia has an insightful page about them.
The vitamin B complex I use provides the following:
B1 – 4.8 mg
B2 – 5.1 mg
B3 – 60 mg
B5 – 30 mg
B6 – 6 mg
B9 – 1.2 mg
B12 – 6 mcg
That’s around 300% RDA for each of them. Additionally my multivitamin pill (see below) includes all B vitamins, from which I get an additional 100-200% RDA. I also get decent amounts of B vitamins from the animal foods (organ meats and eggs especially) that I consume.
I often use the concentrated B complex as pre-workout because of the niacin (B3) load that has been shown to facilitate the release of toxic chemicals and fatty acids from fat cells. So it provides a detox + fat loss mechanism. See, Dr. George Yu’s research on the topic [R2] and the illustration below:
This combo of Bs contains more of the RDA compared to the one I use. The price/quantity ratio is very good so I’d recommend using it.
The reason I take this is pretty much straightforward: to increase the micronutrient intake, additionally to my diet. My multivitamin provides:
Calcium – 100 mg
Vitamin C – 75 mg
Magnesium – 50 mg
Vitamin E – 30 mg
Potassium – 25 mg
B3 – 20 mg
Phosphorus – 20 mg
Zinc – 15 mg
B5 – 10 mg
Iron – 9 mg
B1 – 2 mg
B2 – 2 mg
B6 – 2 mg
Vitamin A – 1.5 mg
Manganese (Mn) – 1 mg
Copper – 1 mg
B9 – 400 mcg
Iodine – 150 mcg
Biotin (aka Vitamin H or B7) – 60 mcg
Vitamin K – 50 mcg
Selenium – 50 mcg
Chromium – 50 mcg
Molybdenum – 50 mcg
D3 – 10 mcg
B12 – 6 mcg
The multivitamin also contains ginseng, ginger, and bio flavanoids from citrus fruits. I take 1 per day. It provides at least 100% RDA for most of the vitamins and minerals, with a few exceptions (Calcium, Vitamin C, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Iron, Manganese, Vitamin K, and Selenium). But I compensate with food and other supplements.
This is the closest to what I have that I could find on Amazon.
Zinc is part of my protocol for maintaining high testosterone levels. It also speeds up the post-workout recovery time. It basically acts as metal cofactor in numerous important reactions within the body. And, I recently noticed accelerated wound healing in one of my experiments. But I cannot attribute the results entirely to Zinc supplementation because there are some other confounding variables. As I refine my strategy and keep experimenting with it, I’m sure I’ll better understand its implication in health optimization.
I use a formula providing 50mg/pill. I take it once a day. It comes in gluconated form. This is 333% RDA, and by some other numbers it is 500% RDA. Zn is also included (100%+) in my multivitamin/multimineral, so I get more than 600% RDA for Zinc.
This is similar to what I’m using.
Fucus Vesiculosus (known as bladderwrack)
This is a seaweed that’s mostly known as one of the cleanest and richest sources of iodine. The one I use is cultivated on the coasts of the North Sea. I use it in capsule form. I take it intermittently (not on a regular basis).
1 capsule provides approximately 200% RDA for iodine. I usually take 1/day and it seems to be working well with my low-calorie-moderate-to-low-protein ketogenic dietary approach. I experimented with taking 2/day, and given that I also have another 100% RDA for iodine from my multivitamin/multimineral, it seems to have an effect on speeding up processes in my body (possibly due to increased thyroid activity – mainly higher T3).
Two of the symptoms that I get when using this overdose are: increased body heat and hot flashes, which I hate. It’s interesting to experience increased body heat when going low or very low calorie nutrient protocol.
So, to avoid this and to fuel the love I have for cold thermogenesis, I’ll stick to using 1 capsule/day. I take one course every couple of months.
The supplement I use is similar to this one.
Spirulina is a blue-green algae from the Cyanobacteria family. It is considered one of the richest sources of protein, containing 51-71% protein as dry weight, considerably more than many animal products. It also concentrates dozens of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients. Sneak-peak from Wikipedia:
Spirulina’s lipid content is about 7% by weight, and is rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and also provides alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA). Spirulina contains vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinamide), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folic acid), vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E. It is also a source of potassium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, selenium, sodium, and zinc. Spirulina contains many pigments which may be beneficial and bioavailable, including beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, 7-hydroxyretinoic acid, isomers, chlorophyll-a, xanthophyll, echinenone, myxoxanthophyll, canthaxanthin, diatoxanthin, 3′-hydroxyechinenone, beta-cryptoxanthin, and oscillaxanthin, plus the phycobiliproteins, c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin.
I highly recommend reading more about this by following the research links on its Wiki page. The type of spirulina I use comes in powdered form. I mixed 3-4g of powder spirulina with squeezed lemon, grapefruit, a few drops of liquid stevia and water. The result is a glassful of unappealing black concoction:
In the near future I will add Chlorella to the mix, due to its very high concentration of chlorophyll (richest source) and high concentration of micronutrients.
This is an alumino-sillicate mineral that is created when molten lava combines with seawater. It has numerous medical applications and it’s starting to go mainstream in the health and wellness community.
Its high electronegative charge and cage-like microscopic structure makes it bind and engulf (similar to what macrophages do) high positively charged compounds, such as cesium, mercury, lead, and other radioactive substances.
That’s why it’s been used as a decontamination compound for people involved in radioactive disasters. It’s been also used in patients undergoing chemo/radio therapy to eliminate heavy metals.
Zeolite is been shown not to bind vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, making it stomach and gut friendly. Some studies provide rationale for its antiviral, immuno-stimulating, and antidiarrheal properties. I can somewhat confirm this from my personal experiments but I will write more about it in the future.
I assume that as its popularity increases, it will be used for water cleaning (purifying) purposes. Zeolites promise a lot in this area of research. To learn more about zeolites, you can read this entire 1,200 page book that’s been written about it, or just focus on the last few dozens of pages on its medical applications. The book is very expensive, but if you want a copy of those pages, send me an email and I’ll save you some bucks.
The type of zeolite that I’m using is from a local company and it comes in capsulated form. One capsule provides mineralized zeolite which is 83% clinoptilolite (600 mg). I usually take 1/day and I mostly use it when I engage in long-duration fasting.
Cracking the capsule wide-open, and getting all the powder out makes it usable as topical solution. You can combine it with purified water for this purpose. Ignore all the creams containing zeolites as they often have it in minute quantities and they also include many other unwanted chemicals.
This is similar to what I’m using, but you could get the powdered, much cheaper and more convenient form, from here.
The PAGG Stack
Next on the list is something that I’ve learned about in Tim Ferriss’ 4 Hour Body. It is called the PAGG stack that he uses/used to keep his insulin levels low and blood sugar under control while also following a certain low-carb dietary approach.
PAGG stands for: Policosanol, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Garlic Extract, and Green Tea Extract. I do not take this combo on a regular basis. I cycle it. Sometimes I interrupt it for a couple of weeks so that I regain sensitivity to those compounds. And, while Tim suggests taking it 4 times a day, I usually take it 3 times. So 3 times:
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Green Tea Extract
A few words on each:
We learn from Wikipedia that this is a mixture of long chain alcohols from plant waxes. It is promoted as improving cholesterol levels. Doses of 5-20 mg/day are effective for this purpose [R3, R4]. Others advocate for its ability to improve blood sugar levels as well. Since I take the PAGG stack 3 times a day, the total intake of policosanol is 15mg (3 pills of 5mg each). The one that I use is from a local company so it’s not on Amazon (yet), but for reference, this is a good one to start with.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (+ Biotin + Chromium)
ALA is the second compound in the PAGG stack. It’s been widely used by people suffering from diabetes as it helps with blood sugar management, and often with diabetic neuropathy [R5]. Alpha Lipoic Acid also has powerful anti-oxidative properties. It also been shown to be an activator of the AMPk (energy sensing enzyme) pathway, which is correlated with plethora of good healthy stuff (increased lipid oxidation, increased insulin sensitivity, increased autophagy, lower metabolism – yes I don’t want to waste myself faster as a result of an accelerated metabolism, etc) [R6, R7, R8].
The ALA supplement that I’m using provides 300 mg ALA per capsule. It also contains 300 mcg of Biotin and 200 mcg of Chromium Picolinate. Since I take the PAGG stack 3 times a day, I get 900 mg of ALA each day. This is fairly similar to what I have, except that it doesn’t contain chromium.
Green Tea Extract (decaffeinated)
The extract that I’m using is decaffeinated and super-concentrated (1,200 pounds of green tea leafs will give about 2.5 pounds of this extract. To avoid burdening you with dozens of research studies on EGCG (one of the main compounds – catechin – of green tea extract), please do a research on pubmed or google scholar and judge for yourself. I’ll give you just one [R9].
The supplement that I use provides 200 mg of green tea extract per capsule. Once again, my supplement is from a Romanian company and I cannot link it to Amazon. However, a good decaffeinated green tea extract seems to be this one. It provides twice the concentration of the one I’m using. I take it 3 times per day.
The main active compound in garlic extract is allicin. My friend, Wikipedia, will give you one of the best overviews on it. As you will see, there is some doubt on its efficiency as well. 🙂
The one that I’m using is a gelatin capsule (odorless – it doesn’t smell garlicky) providing 5 mg allicin. This is similar to what I have. I take it three times a day.
Some of you know that a result of my overall strategy (fasting+CT+well formulated keto+supplementation) is the ability to recover faster from workouts. I focus on heavy lifting currently and I should mention that I mostly workout in the morning in a fasted state (16+ hours of fast).
This section is going to be very brief because I only use C4 (randomly and cyclically) as pre-workout, and creatine monohydrate + BCAAs as post-workout. I think that the alanine rash from C4 provides more of a placebo motivating effect than a real enhancement of my workout. Creatine + BCAAs may be helpful though.
Both creatine and BCAAs may come in an unflavored powdered form, which is very good because it doesn’t contain other unwanted ingredients. For flavor you could add a tsp of unsweetened cacao powder. You could also mix creatine (4-5 g) with a good protein isolate.
I realize that if I keep going this way, this post is gonna turn into a 10,000 word unreadable blob. That’s why I’m going to try to keep it brief with the rest of the stuff that I’m using. And what’s most important, it’s been said above.
I intermittently use Echinacea for its immunity boosting properties. The pill provides ~600 mg echinacea extract. I take it 3 times a day (mostly during the cold season). Here’s a good product similar to mine.
Then, I use resveratrol 100-200mg per day. The research is vast, trivial, inconclusive and still ongoing on this compound and its promising effects on longevity (primarily for its sirtuin activatory properties).
Because of its (somewhat) poor absorption, I’m becoming more excited about the rise of other NAD+ boosters (precursors) and the times when they will become cheaper [R11].
A starting point of research on resveratrol, sirtuins, and NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide – an NAD+ precursor) should be David Sinclair’s work.
This product is similar to the resveratrol I’m using.
Next is SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), which is part of my protocol to improve my redox potential. A simple, yet geeky and non-understandable, definition is provided by Wikipedia:
Superoxide dismutases are enzymes that alternately catalyze the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage. Hydrogen peroxide is also damaging, but less so, and is degraded by other enzymes such as catalase.
Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. One exception is Lactobacillus plantarum and related lactobacilli, which use a different mechanism to prevent damage from reactive (O2−).
Simply put, your metabolism produces superoxide which can be very damaging to your health were it not for superoxide dismutase (primarily).
I’ve only recently started supplementing with SOD as part of my strategy. This is what I use. I take 1 capsule/day.
Another supplement that I’ve experimented with in the past is Ciltep. This nootropic is becoming more popular everyday. I wrote more about it in this post about flow. I only had 2-3 bottles (the last one was in late 2014) and I used 2-3 capsules + 1 capsule of Smart Caffeine whenever I felt the need to increase my focus, especially when I wrote my first two books, Ketone Power and The Testosterone Protocol.
Another recent supplement that I tried is 5-HTP (5-hydroxy-tryptophan). This is a precursor for both serotonin and melatonin. Though I used a dosage significantly lower than the recommended, I did notice some nice effects from it, both in terms of mood and sleep. Moreover, since serotonin and satiation seem to be correlated, this also seemed to have a reducing effect on my appetite.
The fact is that my sleep, mood and hunger (and cravings) do not benefit too much from the additional effects of 5-HTP so I’d rather not use it over the long term. I’m mostly never hungry, sleep like a baby, and I seem to have a general positive attitude toward life. A possible negative effect from 5-HTP may be the increased body heat, but this could also correlate with the Fucus overdose (that I mentioned earlier).
The 5-HTP that I had came in a combination with other plant extracts (especially valerian) which added to its anti-anxiety and calming effects; but because it contained valerian-herb extract and it came in a pill form, it smelled horrible.
At first I used 1/day, and then 2/day for a couple of days. Either due solely to its effects or possibly because of overlapping effects with other supplements, I reverted to 1/day for a few more days and then I stopped supplementation altogether. My 5-HTP is similar to this one.
Last winter I briefly experimented with D3 (4,000 IU/day). I felt (as many others) a mood enhancing effect, possibly due to its stimulatory effects on serotonin. You can read more about this by following the references at the end of this article (be critical!). I stopped supplementing because I think that my strategic use of tanning beds, sun exposure, and overall dietary approach put me in the category of non-D-deficient (though I didn’t test my D3 levels yet because it’s an expensive test here).
I guess these are some of the supplements that I’ve experimented with and are worth mentioning. I will update this post as I keep adding/removing stuff from my protocol.
In the near future I want to focus more on researching and including sea weeds (spirulina, chlorella, etc) in my approach, as well as find more ways to chelate toxic chemicals out of my body. Some other stuff on my radar:
and a few others.
If there were only 3 supplements that I could use on a daily basis, given that I have a well formulated nutritional approach, those would be: magnesium, dha, and zinc.
There are several different layers for optimizing human condition (physiology). I’ve always said that simplistic approaches (diet + exercise alone, dogmatic diets, macronutrient focus only, CICO, etc) are myopic.
Diet matters, but it’s only one layer.
Working-out is another one.
Improving your redox potential is another one.
Appropriate supplementation is another one.
Reducing exposure to artificial light (improving circadian function is another).
Reducing EMF exposure is another one.
Smart detoxification (not woo-woo high-sugar juice approaches) is another one.
And so on, and so forth….
Adding the epigenetic factor on top of all these layers makes everything even more individually oriented.
Small disclosure (and building onto the last sentence):
I do not imply that what I do is something that anyone else should follow to get the same results. This is not, under any circumstance, medical advice (and should not be taken as such). Whatever strategy you follow, do it on your own terms.
My studies of epigenetics and genomics tell me that we’re all different, we live in different environments, and we’re exposed to different stimuli everyday. So, it would be rational to approach health optimization in a similar fashion.
1. de Baaij, J. H., Hoenderop, J. G., & Bindels, R. J. (2015). Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiological reviews, 95(1), 1-46.
2. Yu, G. W., Laseter, J., & Mylander, C. (2011). Persistent organic pollutants in serum and several different fat compartments in humans. Journal of environmental and public health, 2011.
3. Effects of policosanol 20 versus 40 mg/day in the treatment of patients with type II hypercholesterolemia: a 6-month double-blind study
4. Meta-analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol.
5. Ziegler, D., Ametov, A., Barinov, A., Dyck, P. J., Gurieva, I., Low, P. A., … & Samigullin, R. (2006). Oral Treatment With α-Lipoic Acid Improves Symptomatic Diabetic Polyneuropathy The SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes care, 29(11), 2365-2370.
6. Lee, W. J., Song, K. H., Koh, E. H., Won, J. C., Kim, H. S., Park, H. S., … & Park, J. Y. (2005). α-Lipoic acid increases insulin sensitivity by activating AMPK in skeletal muscle. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 332(3), 885-891.
7. Park, K. G., Min, A. K., Koh, E. H., Kim, H. S., Kim, M. O., Park, H. S., … & Lee, K. U. (2008). Alpha‐lipoic acid decreases hepatic lipogenesis through adenosine monophosphate‐activated protein kinase (AMPK)‐dependent and AMPK‐independent pathways. Hepatology, 48(5), 1477-1486.
8. Kim, M. S., Park, J. Y., Namkoong, C., Jang, P. G., Ryu, J. W., Song, H. S., … & Lee, K. U. (2004). Anti-obesity effects of α-lipoic acid mediated by suppression of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase. Nature medicine, 10(7), 727-733.
9. Nagle, D. G., Ferreira, D., & Zhou, Y. D. (2006). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): chemical and biomedical perspectives. Phytochemistry, 67(17), 1849-1855.
10. Morselli, E., Maiuri, M. C., Markaki, M., Megalou, E., Pasparaki, A., Palikaras, K., … & Kroemer, G. (2010). Caloric restriction and resveratrol promote longevity through the Sirtuin-1-dependent induction of autophagy. Cell death & disease, 1(1), e10.
11. Uddin, G. M., Yongson, N., Sinclair, D., & Morris, M. (2015). Effects of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function–Impact of Exercise or Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN). The FASEB Journal, 29(1 Supplement), 777-8.
12. Ferriss, T. (2010). The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman.